Full Grain is often confused with Top Grain, but “Top Grain” leather simply comes from the uppermost portion of a hide – the term “Top Grain” is referring to the layer of the hide from which the leather originates. Leather is split into layers and sold as two different products: Top Grain and Split leather. From the Top Grain portion of a hide comes both Full Grain and Corrected Grain leathers.
CORRECTED GRAIN LEATHER
Corrected Grain is also Top Grain leather. Corrected Grain leather undergoes a light buffing process to better absorb dye and minimize the appearance of blemishes and natural leather markings on its surface. Corrected Grain leather is often preferred for use in projects where uniform colour desired.
Nubuck, a Corrected Grain leather, is Top Grain leather where the top hair cell layer has been removed by sanding, resulting in a luxurious nap and velvet-like surface.
Split leathers are often sold as suede. They originate a few layers down from the grain.
Leather is one of man’s earliest and most useful discoveries. Our ancestors used leather to protect themselves from the elements. Primitive man hunted wild animals for food, then made clothing, footwear and crude tents from the hides. Like then, hides used today are a by-product. Animals are raised for the meat, dairy and wool industries, not for their hides. Roughly half of all leather produced today is used to make shoes, and about 25% for clothing. Upholstery demands only around 15% of the total product.
Wall paintings and artifacts in Egyptian tombs dating back to 5000 B.C. indicate that leather was used for sandals, clothes, gloves, buckets, bottles, shrouds for burying the dead and for military equipment. The ancient Greeks are credited with developing tanning formulas using certain tree barks and leaves soaked in water to preserve the leather. This was the first record of vegetable tanned leather, which became a well-established trade in Greece around 500 B.C. Vegetable tanned leathers are still produced today and remain an active ingredient in modern tannages. The Romans made extensive use of leather for footwear, clothes, and military equipment including shields, saddles and harnesses.
Due to its durability and comfort, leather has been used for seating throughout the history of transportation and furniture. It has always been the ideal material for making saddles and tack, as well as footwear. During the Middle Ages, leather became the cover of choice for dining chairs, because it was easy to maintain and did not absorb the odor of food.
The spread of industrialization in the 18th and 19th centuries created a demand for new kinds of leathers, such as belting leathers to drive machinery. The invention of the automobile, the demand for softer, lightweight footwear with a fashionable appearance, and a general rise in the standard of living created a demand for soft, supple, colorful leather. The traditional vegetable tanned leather was too hard and thick for these requirements and thus, the use of chromium salt was adopted and chrome tanning became the standard for modern footwear, fashion and upholstery leathers.
Modern technology has allowed for innovation in the leather industry, as the development of chemicals and sophisticated processing methods have greatly expanded the aesthetics and feel of leather as well as the possible applications. Leather continues to be the material of choice, not just for commercial and residential furniture but for automotive, aviation and marine applications as well.
Why Turkish Leather?
TURKISH LEATHER – THE HERITAGE OF THE MILLENNIUM
Turkey has a 1000 years old strong tradition of processing leather. Today, Turkey is one of the most assertive countries in producing high quality leather products in the world.
The Turkish leather industry is a leader in the world with its knowledge, technological infrastructure and environmentally friendly production methods.
The segment of Turkish leather goods in the world market is premium quality with reasonable price. High expertise and talented hand work makes work force of the sector highly skilled and specialized.
Today there are about 17 Industrial Leather Zones in Turkey which enables us to use modern technology and to produce environment friendly high quality products. Turkish leather industry is ranked as the third in Europe in terms of production capacity and is the 2nd biggest producer in Europe in sheep/ goat leather production. Besides, Turkey is the 4th biggest exporter in the world fur garment export and 6th biggest exporter in the world leather garment trade.
The primary market of Turkish leather exports is Russia followed by Italy, Germany, France, UK and Spain. With its quality and elasticity in production Turkey is number one among the leading leather clothing producing countries. In addition to this, Turkey is among the leading producing countries concerning both the production quantity and quality of fur coat.
Having a long tradition in footwear production, Turkey is one of the leading producing countries in the world. Turkish footwear industry with 300,000,000 pairs capacity is the 2nd in Europe and 9th in the world. Turkish footwear industry exported 56 million pair of shoes to the world. Turkey is the number one in the world in shearing and double face tanning and third in the leather garment manufacturing.
Advantages of the Turkish leather industry in terms of production and export are considered to be;
• Close to the main markets, particularly the European countries and Russian Federation,